A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity (this contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market). Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit. The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry (or market).
The tests that test your patrilineal (Y-DNA) and matrilineal or mother-line ancestry (mtDNA) haplogroups are the only ones that are non-speculative versus an autosomal test, in which a marketer throws spaghetti against the wall.
Haplogroup R-M269 Migration
Origin: R-M269 is the most common haplogroup in western Europe, where its branches are clustered in various national populations, including in the Basque, in Ireland, and on the fringes of the North Sea.
Highlight: R-M269 is found in more than 50% of men in western Europe.
Example Populations: Irish, Basques, British, French
Haplogroup M7 Migration
Origin: Haplogroup M7 is most abundant among people who are descended from the pre-agricultural inhabitants of the Japanese islands – especially the Ainu, who live on the northern island of Hokkaido, and the Ryukuans, who live on Okinawa and neighboring islands.
Highlight: Haplogroup M7 appears to have been common among Japan's earliest inhabitants.